Carbon Capture and Storage
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a process by which excess carbon is extracted from the atmosphere and stored underground, mitigating the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on climate change.
While the bulk of an organisation’s operations can be completely decarbonised, there are some processes that either cannot or would be prohibitively expensive. This is particularly applicable to heavy industry such as steel, chemicals, refining, and cement.
CCS captures the carbon emissions from industrial processes or from the burning of fossil fuels. This works by separating CO2 from the other gases produced, before it is compressed and transported via either pipelines, HGVs or ships to a storage facility. These facilities are typically natural rock formations found deep underground, that are sealed and then injected with CO2 to allow it to be stored indefinitely. Usually, they are at least one kilometre below ground.
A related technology, Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage, re-uses captured CO2 by converting it into useful materials such as biofuel, plastic or concrete, rather than simply storing it.
The UK has set a target of removing 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using CCS by 2030, setting aside £130 million to support CCUS innovation.